Carbon Credits are given to projects that reduce CO2 emissions or capture and sequester CO2 emissions from the atmosphere.

Carbon Offsets are Carbon Credits purchased by an GHG emissions entity to offset emissions, reduce carbon footprint, toward achieving a carbon neutral operation.

1 “Carbon Credit and Carbon Offset: What Makes Them Different?” Agatha Amara, Wast4Change, 18 May 2021

Voluntary Carbon Offset Market Climate Partner Project & Customer Map ¹

Calvin Cycle is Basic Photosynthesis Process for All Plant Life to Absorb CO2 & Produce O2 and Sugars.

2 710 Customers

148 Global Offset Projects

1 – Climate Map,, Customers & Offset Projects, 18 December 2021 
2 – “Voluntary Carbon Market Rankings 2021,” Environmental Finance, Overview Corporate Statements, 2021
3 –  Solar Energy, Bokpoort, Northern Cape, 200,000 tCO2e/Yr. & Biomass, Kapstadt, Cape Town, 60,000 tCO2e/Yr.

Carbon Credit-Offset market


Weighted Carbon Price / Ton CO2e

$48/Ton December 20213

World Bank:

Prices for Carbon Credits expected to reach $100/Ton CO2e by 2030.5

1 – “The New Market for Carbon Offsets,” CME Group, International Investor, 16 August 2021
2 – IHS Markit Global Carbon Index, 1.4.145, 2020
3 – “Value of Carbon Market Update 2021,” Carbon Credit Capital , December 2021
4 – “Carbon Credits: Defining the Energy Transition.” Bloomberg S&P Platts Webinar, 7 December  2021
5 – “Main Types of Carbon Pricing,” Worldbank, Carbon Pricing Dashboard, Sept 2017


RecommendedPlant 22.5 mm (average) truncheons every 1.1 meters in rows 2 meters apart for best survival rate. 3

Building on past restoration projects.

  1. Farm in Bavianskloof, 100 workers over 3 years planted 1,500 ha, millions of tree cuttings. 1 
  2. Voluntary Carbon Standard Project, planting activities in Addo Elephant Park, 500 ha. 2
  3. Fish River and Gounitz River, 10 ha. 3

1 – “South Africa’s First Carbon Farm,” Tim Christophersen, Inter Press Service, June 2019.
2 – C4 EcoSolutions, Voluntary Carbon Standard Project Description, (ABFRP), September 2011.
3 -“A biome-wide experiment to assess the effects of propagule size and treatment on the survival of Spekboom truncheons to restore degraded subtropical thicket of South Africa,” van der Vyver et. al., Plos One Journals, 22 April 2021

Spekboom Carbon Capture Potential

Thicket Restoration Site K27 = 15.4 Tones CO2/Ha./Yr.1

“The K27 block biomass suggests that its full carbon sequestration potential has not been achieved.” 

Potential Farm Carbon Sequestration = 29.4 Tones CO2/Ha./Yr.? 2,a,b 

“Relatively flat areas with overlying Uitenhage Group sediments that give rise to fine-textured soils.”-  Like a Farm?